AryaLinux DocumentationIn this article
- Packages and Applications
- Update and Upgrades
- Building your own
AryaLinux is a GNU/Linux Operating System that is derived from the LFS and BLFS books. AryaLinux is a general purpose Operating System that can be used on laptops, desktops and servers. AryaLinux is vanilla Linux that is built from source tarballs published by authors of the hunderds of components that AryaLinux consists of.
Being relatively new when compared with other Linux distributions, the application repository of AryaLinux contains rather lesser number of applications and packages. However AryaLinux supports Flatpak and Docker out of the box and so applications that are not present in our repositories may be installed through Flatpak or Docker.
Apart from being a general purpose Linux distribution, AryaLinux also provides tools using which one can build her own Linux distribution with desktop environment, packages and customizations of one's choice. Building a distribution however is not something that everyone does and needs advanced knowledge of GNU/Linux Operating Systems.
AryaLinux is installed via the Live ISO which can be downloaded from the download section of our website. Once downloaded the ISO can be burned onto a DVD or written onto a pen drive. The Live ISO is hybrid and hence can be written onto pen drives using a simple dd command. Read this to learn more about building a bootable installation media.
Once the boot media is one can boot into the boot media. This process differs from system to system. In some systems, BIOS settings have to be changed to change the first boot device and in some, a certain key needs to be pressed to bring up the boot device menu. In some systems the key to bring up the boot menu is F9 and in some its F12. There are some systems where F8 needs to be used to bring up the boot menu.
Once the boot media is selected, the grub OS selection menu appears. Depending upon the ISO that was downloades, the Grub OS choice menu might show Gnome or KDE or XFCE or Mate as the default option. This option needs to be entered to boot into the AryaLinux Live. Once the desktop appears, the installer can be executed from the System menu or from the applications drawer in Gnome3. Menu option leading upto the AryaLinux would have the label - Installer. This option can be found under the following menus:
- Gnome3 - The applications drawer, which can be openend by clicking icon in the bottom left corner.
- XFCE - Applications -> System -> Installer
- KDE Plasma - Applications -> System -> Installer
- Mate desktop environment - Applications -> System -> Installer
Disk partitioning before installation
Before starting the installation please make sure you have a partition where you can install AryaLinux. AryaLinux needs at least a partition of size 20GB for installation and if you are booting in the EFI mode you need a EFI boot partition as well. You can click on the Partition Disk button in the installer to start the partition manager. If the partition manager asks you for a password please enter aryalinux as the password.Installer screens: Device Selection
The Installer would present start with the device selection screen. Please choose the device where you would like
to install AryaLinux. The device may show cryptic names like /dev/sda or /dev/sdb and so one might have to look
into the details to figure out the device that is being referred to. Beside the device name, the device's size would
be displayed. That should help in selecting the device or Hard Disk where the installation has to be done.
In the second screen the installation partitions need to be selected. The root partition is the only mandatory
partition that needs to selected. The rest can be left blank. For most users, selecting just the root partition
would do the job. Advanced users may select more than one partitions. This note is for advanced users in case
they choose to select more than one partitions. Please make sure that the boot partition and the home partition
that you select have an ext4 filesystem in them. Also please make sure that the root partition, the home partition
and the boot partition all should be different from each other.
Here are the recommended sizes of each of the partitions:
- EFI Partition: In case you have an GPT partition table and boot in EFI mode, you need to have an EFI partition where the bootloader can be installed.
- Root Partition: Minimum 20GB
- Home Partition: Minimum 2GB or whatever home partition you already have.
- Boot Partition: 200MB or whatever boot partition you already have.
- Swap partition: The swap partition is only needed if you have less than 4GB RAM. In such a case, a partition of size two times the RAM would be enough
The timezone shows the list of timezones from which you can select your timezone. Please make sure you select the right Country/City from the list presented in this screen
Language and keyboard selection
In the following screen the language and locale needs to be selected. The language is a code like en_IN.utf8 or en_US.utf8. The first part of the code represents the language for instance en represents English in these examples. The second part represents the country, for instance IN represents India and US represents the United States in these examples. The last part represents the encoding. Not choosing the right encoding may result in problems in the text appearing in all or some applications. Read more about encoding here.
In the user details screen the user's name and other details have to be entered.
Here are few things that you need to take care of while providing these details:
- Please avoid using anything other than letters and numbers in the username and start with a letter
- Avoid upper case letters in the username and do not put a space in the username
In the following screen the root user's password needs to be entered. The Administrator account is known as the root user in AryaLinux.
Confirmation and installation progress
In the following screen one can check if all the data entered in the previous screens are correct. In case they are not, one can go back and modify the details. In case you are satisfied with the details entered, you can start the install process.
Once the installation starts, the installation log screen would appear and installation logs would be displayed here. The installation logs give a fair idea of the progress in installation and errors if any do happen. Once the installation log screen displays done, you can go ahead and close the installer and reboot the system after removing the boot media to boot into the newly installed AryaLinux.
Once the installation completes, you would see the message "Installation completed successfully" in the progress console. Then simply click Close and exit the installer. Reboot and you should be able to login to the newly installed system. Please make sure you remove the live media before booting to avoid rebooting into the live media.
Packages and Applications
AryaLinux being fairly new has a package/application repository which has a relatively smaller number of packages compared to other Linux distributions. Also since AryaLinux is not a remaster of any other Linux distribution, packages of other distributions neither work nor are supported in AryaLinux. An attempt to try making an application of some other distribution in AryaLinux may mess your system partitally or completely with or without a possibility of recovery.
Packages in AryaLinux can be installed using the alps tool. The command to install packages using alps is:
alps install package_name
Help for alps can be shown using the following command:
You can read more about alps in the alps documentation.
Update and Upgrades
Since AryaLinux is source based, making the system updatable or upgradable is difficult. Usually updates and Upgrades can easily be done in distributions which supply binary packages for libraries and applications. But for distributions like AryaLinux this process is not so straightforward because the packages for which newer versions get released, may have dependencies which in turn might have other dependencies and so on. One would have to build the entire dependency chain for a proper upgrade to happen. Also if other applications and packages are dependent on the package you are updating, they might break and so they might need to be rebuild. This opens up a pandora box of evils releated to dependency resolution and rebuilding. That is why its best to update the entire operating system when a newer version is released or update only applications on which other packages or applications are not dependent for example Libreoffice or Firefox or VLC media player etc.
That being said when alps supports two options: selfupdate and updatescripts using which you can update alps itself so that when new features are introduced into alps you would have them in your system and update the buildscripts of applications that have been modified or newly added to AryaLinux's application repository. Read more about buildscripts here.
Building your own
Using AryaLinux you can also build your "from scratch" GNU/Linux system and distribution, i.e. if you are ready for it. Read the documentation on building AryaLinux to learn more about it. If you build a distribution or system using AryaLinux, your system would also have the same limitations as AryaLinux.
Being the only person developing AryaLinux, I would really love to have help in development or translation of AryaLinux. In case you would like to help with the development or translation, please write to me at firstname.lastname@example.org.